Consider the following two scenarios of violence from a psychological perspective:
Cindy is 10 years old and has been physically beaten by her parents when she does something of which they do not approve. Over the past 5 years, Cindy has suffered a broken arm, black eyes, and many bruises as a result of her parents’ beatings.
Susan is 36 years old and had a good childhood, but married an abusive man. Over the 10 years they have been married, Susan’s husband has consistently emotionally and physically abused her. To avoid legal or social repercussions against her husband, Susan has hidden her considerable injuries from employers, friends, and family members.
Though Cindy and Susan were both abused, their situations differ in that Cindy suffered the abuse as a child. Age has important implications for short and long-term effects of the abuse that women may suffer. Research suggests, for instance, that children or adolescents who experience domestic violence may experience physiological changes in their brain and lead to long-term psychological effects that are not present when the abuse occurs in adulthood.
To prepare for this Discussion, research potential long-term effects on girls and women of domestic violence that occurs during childhood and/or adolescence. Select one effect, potentially from this week’s media, to use for this Discussion and locate three peer-reviewed articles on it.
With these thoughts in mind:
Post by Day 4 a brief description of the effect you selected and a synthesis of the research you have found on it (include references to the media as well). Then suggest areas for further research on this effect. Use the Learning Resources and other current literature to support your response. Cite your references using APA format.
Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.
Levy, B. (2008). Violence against women: An overview. In Women and violence (pp. 1–40). CA: Seal Press.Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Campbell, R., Greeson, M. R., Bybee, D., & Raja, S. (2008). The co-occurrence of childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, intimate partner violence, and sexual harassment: A mediational model of posttraumatic stress disorder and physical health outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(2), 194–207.Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Cavanaugh, C. E., Messing, J. T., Petras, H., Fowler, B., La Flair, L., Kub, J., & Campbell, J. C. (2011). Patterns of violence against women: A latent class analysis. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4(2), 169-176.Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Grella, C. E., Stein, J. A., & Greenwell, L. (2005). Associations among childhood trauma, adolescent problem behaviors, and adverse adult outcomes in substance-abusing women offenders. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 19(1), 43–53.Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Lehavot, K., Walters, K. L., & Simoni, J. M. (2010). Abuse, mastery, and health among lesbian, bisexual, and two-spirit American Indian and Alaska Native women. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 15(3), 275-84.Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Rose, R. C., House, A. S., & Stepleman, L. M. (2010). Intimate partner violence and its effects on the health of African American HIV-positive women. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 2(4), 311–317.Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012). Violence. Baltimore, MD: Author.