Respond by sharing additional insights or alternative perspectives.


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Strategic planning is important for the enhancement of contemporary purpose driven organizations including public sectors and non-profit.  It is a contemporary way of managing most organisations to a successful destination.  Furthermore, Bryson, (2010) stressed that the strategic planning process bridges the gap between an organisations vision and mission to successful end in relation to the achievement of goals and objectives.

There are steps and approaches organizations would take advantage of from existing literature for formulation of ideas. In the face of environmental opportunities and challenges clear decision making for growth achievement approaches in strategic planning are essential. (Bryson, 2011).  Public sector and non-profits are able to harvest values, meet their goals and objectives when critical attention is given to all steps process in strategic planning.  The steps involved in the strategic planning process helps an organization reach its potential. For instance a look at stage 6 and 7 of the process shows that the process is all around and takes into account so many factors. 

Strategic formulation in stage 6 focuses on an action oriented mapping by creating sequence of actions to address issues facing the organisation and step seven also deals with plan review of the strategy for adaption. These stages of the planning process indicate the issues that confront the organisation. The decision making by the key policy makers of the organisation at this point is important and it is assumed that the decision for change and transformation at this level will handle the issues at stake and will enhance the business standing of the organisation in a positive way and gives directions as to how an organization rises to its height of business. 

Creation of sequence of actions to address issues facing organisation, overcoming the challenges and also taking advantage of the opportunities requires collaboration, cooperation and coordination. The purpose of partnership in public sector or non-profit smooth operation which can harmonise movement of all department and cater of all details in any environment, even in an unstable environment are roles play by collaboration, cooperation and coordination used by stakeholders, which will be the strong tower leading to success of organisations. (Bryson, 2011).

Strategic planning is important in that it guarantees clearly defined objectives, assesses the internal and external factors necessary to formulate strategies, implements strategies, evaluates progress, and makes adjustments accordingly. The process of adaption and formulation requires specific actions, responsibilities and resources that will help steer the organization in a particular direction on decisions taken by top management for adaption within resources available and scope of time for the organisation. Steps six and seven of the strategic planning process gives opportunities for  monitoring, assessing, and adjusting actions necessary to make the mission of the final destination of the organisation more a reality.  

The concepts, procedures and tools used to formulate critical decisions and actions that shape and guide the organisation’s existence is its reliability on the roles play by collaboration that creates opportunities for departments to share knowledge, experience and skills at any level with multiple members for modification of goals when the need arises and also contributes to the development ideas to be adapted and formulated to a real and concrete idea.  Successful collaboration rides on sufficient resources and also organisational culture that tend to encourage effective teamwork for cooperation for well-defined responsibilities of every activity on the way of change.  Collaboration promotes division of labour and fair distribution of responsibilities which also encourages negotiations.

The role of cooperation ensures trust and respect to each member of a group. It opens communication freely and a desire to accept contribution and input of colleagues. Bryson, (2009). It also ensures that differences and conflicts are managed and addressed holistically in respectful manners because absence of cooperation brings out competition which can discourage team work and retard the organisation’s goals achievement and avoid partnership in terms of resources, capabilities and competencies in gaining mutual interests for advancement of goals. 

The role of coordination is important because it enhances all initiatives for change to be organised in order to promote overall achievement of strategic objectives and each person with responsibility is allowed to a contribution in terms of departmental planning and budgets and time. Coordination ensures that all departments are working together to achieve organisational aim by addressing issues with every needed stakeholder. It also avoid clashes and duplication and obstruction.

In organisations such as a non-profit the need for stakeholders is important to adaption and formulation of strategic planning process. These organisations handle issues from diverse quarters and need to ensure collaboration, cooperation and coordination which is vital for smooth running of operations and policies. Stakeholders are let go sometimes if their services are not immediately needed at review stages and also new and fresh ones services are employed to ensure quality work or activities at all levels.  Fund raisers, philanthropist, marketers, top decision makers and line managers, skilled and unskilled employees and employers at every point of strategic planning process play their roles of effect positive social change. 

Collaboration, cooperation and coordination can be said to curtail mistakes, duplication, obstruction and corruption of larger organisations if applied critically.

Whitney & Cooperider, (2000), asserted an entire system change for a larger group by taking into consideration an approach that factors importance of how to handle emergence and deliberation in strategic planning change process for organisations to achieve their goals. The public sector at local government and rural planning use collaboration, cooperation and coordination for rural development by taking advantage of decentralisation.



Bryson, J. M. (2010). The Future of Public and Nonprofit Strategic Planning in the United States. Public Administration Review, 70s255-s267. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6210.2010.02285.x

Bryson, J. M. (2011). Strategic planning for public and nonprofit organizations: A guide to strengthening and sustaining organizational achievement (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass

Whitney, D. & Cooperrider, D.L. (2000) The Appreciative Inquiry Summit: An Emerging Methodology for Whole System Positive Change The Best Picks of AI Tools. (n.d.). Retrieved January 20, 2015, from

  • Posted: 4 years ago
  • Due: 02/01/2016
  • Budget: $5

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