I need support with this Computer Science question so I can learn better.


I need two responses of at least 150 words each for the below students discussions for this week. Also in the bold below are the questions the students at answering.

Please see the following activities for this discussion forum:

1) Research and discuss biometric multi-factor system designs and the effects of multi-biometrics on the user.

Student one:

Hey Class,

Multi-factor authentication uses two different authentication factors to identify a user and provide access to files, systems, buildings, etc. Using multiple forms of authentication can tighten security and lessen the effects of phishing attacks, making it harder for adversaries to gain access while keeping a relatively simple process for authorized users (Strom, 2019). The three types of authentication are something you know (i.e. password), something you have (i.e. CAC), and something you are (i.e. CAC) (Strom, 2019). Most systems that require multi-factor authentication require you to use at least two different types, but there are systems that use two biometric factors for authentication.

The current options for multi-factor biometric authentication are multi-modal, multi-sensor, multi-instance, multi-algorithm, and multi-sample designs (Modi, 2011). I have seen two of the designs in place. A multimodal system uses two different biometric factors and fuses them to provide authentication (Modi, 2011). Some of the automated gates in South Korea used a CAC, fingerprint, weight, and facial recognition (even though I’m pretty sure the security used the camera feed and compared our face to our ID pic in the system) to grant access to the base. The system often malfunctioned and users contacted security through a speaker system to gain access. The second design I encountered was Multi-sample. The police department took multiple samples for the index finger but only required you to provide it once after enrolling, so I’m assuming they used the original samples to decrease the rate of false negatives (Modi, 2011).

The effects depend on the knowledge of the user, the simplicity of the system, and the quality of the system. A system like the one in Korea caused major inconveniences for people as the line to get through the gates often exceeded 15 people. Because of the poor effectiveness of the system, most users authenticated incorrectly by engaging with guards via the camera and speaker system, or simply chose to avoid the system and went to manned gates that were out of their way.


Modi, S. K. (2011). Biometrics in Identity Management: Concepts to Applications. Retrieved from https://library-books24x7-com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/assetviewer.aspx?bookid=65264&chunkid=991205898&rowid=752

Strom, D. (2019, January). Exploring multifactor authentication benefits and technology. Retrieved from https://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/feature/The-fundamentals-of-MFA-Multifactor-authentication-in-the-enterprise


Student two:

There are several multi-factor system designs when it comes to the use of multi-biometrics. These include multimodal, multi-instance, multisensor, multialgorthmic and multisample. The first, multimodal, combines multiple biometric technologies such as fingerprint and iris recognition to make a decision and is the most common multibiometric system used. Multimodal systems are a great way to allow all users to use the biometric system even when they do not have the ability to provide a certain type of sample. Multi-instance biometric systems take data from the same type of characteristics, such as multiple fingerprints or both left and right iris. Multisensor systems use multiple sensors to collect the same characteristics and can capture different levels of information. For example, two sensors scanning one fingerprint sample instead of one. It combines the information and allows you to get more details than when using one type of sensor. Next is multialgorithmic, this type of system process one characteristic or trait, such as a fingerprint, and combines the information from two or more matches to make its decision, essentially using more than one formula. Lastly comes the multisample systems. These systems use multiple samples of the same biometric feature. Some samples can be distorted so combining these samples help reduce issues varying between samples which improve recognition performance, especially when used in the enrollment process.

The effects of multi-biometrics on the user can vary depending on whether the samples are obtained sequentially or simultaneously. If they are obtained sequential, this will require more time in the process which can cause a user to be unhappy with the system. When the samples are obtained simultaneously this requires less work and time from the subject which can result in higher satisfaction of the system. The use of a multibiometric system can result in fewer error rates as well which can boost satisfaction and effort.



Modi, S. K. (2011). Multibiometric Systems. In Biometrics in Identity Management: Concepts to Applications. Artech House. Retrieved July 23, 2019, from http://common.books24x7.com.ezproxy1.apus.edu/toc.aspx?bookid=65264.

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