I don’t know how to handle this English question and need guidance.

Discuss any one of the following:

1. Watch the full Umm Kulthum documentary to mention: a) the importance of religious (i.e. Islamic) recitation to her expert pronunciation of Arabic in her songs; b) a personal example of how she defined the role of “artist” in her society and music; c) the affects of Egyptian political leadership on her personal/professional decisions.

2. Define “code-switching” in your own words, using one or more examples from your own daily experience – you can go beyond the linguistic and musical to relate the term to other facets of life (e.g. for different purposes, switching codes of fashion, speaking style, behavior, etc.).

3. Give your own example(s) of “ritual space” in daily life (musical or other), and describe: a) what expectations were/are set-up to be fulfilled, and b) a unique moment within that space that inspired an excited, climactic build-up for some “ecstatic” response.

4. Summarize/discuss each of the contexts that samba has moved through along its Brazilian journey, based on the information from the Jeremy Marre film excerpt.

5. Discuss how the idea of “syncretism” can be applied to: 1) the article-file “Muslim Roots, U.S. Blues”, and 2) at least one other cultural example of your own choosing, whether musical, religious, socio-political, or other.



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